Monday, August 21, 2023



The importance of maintaining psychological health and safety (PH&S) in the workplace has become increasingly recognized in recent years. This article explores the detrimental effects of low levels of PH&S on both individual employees and organizations, offering an insight into the wide-ranging impacts of not prioritizing mental well-being in professional settings.



The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mental health as ‘a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community’ (WHO, 2004). In the context of work, low levels of PH&S can have profound implications.


1. Effects on Individual Employees


1.1.        Decreased Job Satisfaction


Low PH&S levels correlate with reduced job satisfaction (Harter, Schmidt, & Keyes, 2003). Employees who feel unsupported or stressed by workplace conditions are less likely to feel positive about their roles or employer.


1.2.        Mental Health Disorders


A lack of support and increased workplace stress can lead to heightened risks for mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety (Theorell, Hammarström, Aronsson, Träskman Bendz, Grape, Hogstedt, & Hall, 2015).


1.3.        Burnout


Burnout, characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment, is more prevalent in environments with low PH&S (Maslach, Schaufeli, & Leiter, 2001).


1.4.        Physical Health Implications


Stress in the workplace can manifest in physical symptoms, including sleep disturbances, cardiovascular diseases, and a weakened immune system (Chandola, Brunner, & Marmot, 2006).


2.       Effects on Organizations


2.1.        Reduced Productivity


Employees facing psychological distress or burnout are more likely to have reduced productivity levels, affecting the overall output of the organization (Goetzel, Ozminkowski, Sederer, & Mark, 2002).


2.2.        Increased Absenteeism


Organizations with low PH&S tend to have higher absentee rates as employees take time off due to stress-related illnesses or mental health disorders (Hilton, Whiteford, Sheridan, Cleary, Chant, Wang, & Kessler, 2008).


2.3.        High Turnover Rates


Workplaces that don't prioritize PH&S often experience high employee turnover, resulting in increased recruitment and training costs (Hom, & Griffeth, 1995).


2.4.        Poor Organizational Reputation


In the age of transparency and employee reviews on platforms like Glassdoor, low PH&S can tarnish an organization's public image (Willness, Steel, & Lee, 2007).


2.5.        Legal and Financial Implications


Companies may face legal consequences if found negligent in maintaining PH&S standards, leading to fines or lawsuits (Leka, & Jain, 2010).


3.       Broader Societal Impact


Societies bear the burden of reduced PH&S in workplaces in the form of increased healthcare costs, reduced economic output, and broader public health concerns (Sauter, Murphy, & Hurrell, 1990).




Ignoring psychological health and safety in the workplace not only jeopardizes individual well-being but also threatens the very fabric of organizations and societies. It is imperative for modern businesses to recognize and act upon these challenges, ensuring that workplaces are not just places of business but also sanctuaries of well-being.




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Hilton, M. F., Whiteford, H. A., Sheridan, J. S., Cleary, C. M., Chant, D. C., Wang, P. S., & Kessler, R. C. (2008). The prevalence of psychological distress in employees and associated occupational risk factors. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 50(7), 746-757. 


Hom, P. W., & Griffeth, R. W. (1995). Employee turnover. South-Western Publishers. 


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Maslach, C., Schaufeli, W. B., & Leiter, M. P. (2001). Job burnout. Annual review of psychology, 52(1), 397-422.


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Sauter, S. L., Murphy, L. R., & Hurrell Jr, J. J. (1990). Prevention of work-related psychological disorders. American Psychologist, 45(10), 1146. 


Theorell, T., Hammarström, A., Aronsson, G., Träskman Bendz, L., Grape, T., Hogstedt, C., ... & Hall, C. (2015). A systematic review including meta-analysis of work environment and depressive symptoms. BMC public health, 15(1), 738. 


Willness, C. R., Steel, P., & Lee, K. (2007). A meta-analysis of the antecedents and consequences of workplace sexual harassment. Personnel psychology, 60(1), 127-162.


World Health Organization (WHO). (2004). Promoting Mental Health: Concepts, Emerging Evidence, Practice. Geneva: WHO. 


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